Haitian Cacao: A Potentially Sweet Export

  • Posted on: 9 November 2016
  • By: Bryan Schaaf

Haiti first began producing cacao in the mid 16th century. According to Confectionary News, Haiti produces approximately 4,500 metric tons of three different cacao varietals (Trinitario, Criollo, and Forastero) per year.  This is 0.1% of the global market. The World Cocoa Foundation reports global demand for cacao is rising 3.1 percent a year as people living in emerging economies are increasingly able to afford and appreciate chocolate. The Foundation further notes that 70 percent of the world's cacao is produced in West Africa and vulnerable to extreme weather, pests and disease. There is an opening for Haiti to increase its market share, especially given its proximity to the United States.  Confectionary News highlights a number of challenges facing Haiti including a lack of (reputable) mechanisms for credit, few drying facilities, and most cacao being sold unfermented which can lead to mold during period of heavy rain.  However, all these challenges have solutions.

Feed the Future is a USG inter-agency initiative to promote agricultural productivity in partner countries, including Haiti.  A Feed the Future blog notes that the vast majority of the world’s cacao originates from small, family-run farms that have limited access to resources – and that is certainly the case for Haiti.  Challenges for attracting the high-end export market include low yields due to pests and aging trees, difficulty in obtaining farming supplies and in adopting improved farming techniques, and limited market access.  Feed the Future’s support is focused on training cacao producers to overcome production challenges, acquire high-quality seeds and seedlings, and engage in better trade and marketing.  The intent is to double the income of at least 20,000 rural households who grow cacao as well as other crops. Another attractive feature of cacao is that, as a profitable tree crop, it could support reforestation efforts.  ENSIA emphasizes that larger coconut, breadfruit, mango and avocado trees can tower over and provide shade to the smaller cocoa trees, as well as food for farmers, birds, and other animals.

Ready to try Haitian chocolate?  There a growing number of online options:

  • Singing Rooster works directly with Haitian farmers to improve crops, increase capacity, farm with environmental responsibility, and produce consistently high quality coffee and cacao crops.  Proceeds from 2015 chocolate bar sales supported the construction of fermentation tanks for a farmer cooperative near Cap Haitien, doubling capacity to produce cacao suitable for export.  Singing Rooster sells Haitian chocolate bars in a variety of flavors. 
  • Les Chocolateries Askanya is Haiti’s first bean-to-bar chocolate company.  Askanya sources all of its cacao from the Federation Des Cooperatives Cacaoyeres du Nord (FECANNO), an alliance of nine cooperatives in the north with 3,000 farmers.
  • Lutheran World Relief, in partnership with the Inter-American Development Bank and Catholic Relief Services, supports FECCANO farmers to sustainably increase yields and product quality, and strengthen farmers’ connection to markets and each other for coordinated business practices.  One can purchase fair trade chocolate, coffee, tea, and other agricultural commodities from the LWF Equal Exchange Cooperative.
  • Taza Chocolate reports being the first American company to source organic Haitian cacao.  Taza sources primarily from Produits des Iles S.A (PISA), an exporter working with over 1,500 cacao farmers in northern Haiti.  PISA pays farmers double the price they would receive for raw beans. Taza and Whole Foods are partnering to market the chocolate to a broader audience.

If you have tried Haitian chocolate already, or know other places to order it from, please share in the comments section below.

Photo Credit: Taza

Comments

p>11/18/2016</p>

<p>If you’re into chocolate, and you’ve shopped at Whole Foods in the last couple of months, you might have seen Taza Chocolate’s stone ground Haiti bar. It hasn’t been easy, but cocoa production in Haiti has been on the rise in recent years, with more being exported.&nbsp;The Haitian cacao beans Taza buys come from that country’s northeast region, which was unharmed when Hurricane Matthew passed by last month. However, Haiti’s other big cacao-growing region was devastated.</p>

<p>In the fall, in Haiti’s far southwest, carpets of cacao beans can be seen along roadsides, drying in the sun. This year is no exception. They lend a splash of normalcy to the wreckage left by Hurricane Matthew. In October, in the town of Dame Marie, I visited the processing plant for southern Haiti’s largest cocoa cooperative, known by its French acronym, CAUD. Behind a gate, men and women emptied sacs of russet cacao beans onto the ground and spread them flat. The building behind them was covered with a ragged tarp, and nearby greenhouse frames had been stripped of their covers.</p>

<p>Manager Jean Marie Francois told me the storage building’s roof flew off in the storm. “We had 200 to 300 60-kilo sacs of cacao that had already been dried, sorted&nbsp;and prepared for export,” he said. “It all got soaked. We’re trying to dry it out, and we’ll see if the quality’s been affected.” Either way, it was the last large batch of beans the cooperative would see for a long time. Almost all of the cacao trees here were severely damaged or destroyed, with branches ripped from trunks or roots wrenched from the ground.</p>

<p>I drove the 10 hours here from Port-au-Prince with staff from Root Capital, an American nongovernmental organization&nbsp;that supports agricultural enterprises around the world, including CAUD. They told me business was booming, and that this drying and fermenting facility had just expanded. CAUD recently surpassed a thousand members and was selling to the high-end French chocolate company, Kaléo. “CAUD was what we call a success story,” said Patrick Dessources, who heads Root Capital’s Haiti team. “They changed the community landscape just by providing a market and some kind of financing for the farmers.”</p>

<p>He introduced me to Paulonne Durette, the co-op’s lead purchaser, who told me that before the storm she was buying thousands of pounds a day from local growers. “Every day it’s a pleasure for me to buy a few pounds of cacao from each person&nbsp;and give them some money,” she said. “We always have money to give them, and that makes me happy.” But not anymore. “Cacao was our master in Dame Marie, but now ... ” Durette hesitated.&nbsp;“We say we’ve been abandoned, without mom or dad, because now we have nothing.”</p>

<p>Durette said the co-op had a ripple effect on the local economy. Cacao is not the only devastated crop. Most others — breadfruit, yams, plantains — were also virtually wiped out. But cacao was special. Jean Marie Francois, the manager, told&nbsp;me, “Cacao is the main product that makes it possible for people to send their kids to school.” For many in this region, cacao means education. It’s a cash crop that’s harvested in time for parents to pay for tuition, books and uniforms each year. In front of the processing plant, I met Donald Reilly. He’s with Catholic Relief Services, which also supports the co-op. He came in on a US military helicopter&nbsp;and had been driving around, meeting with farmers. He said things were looking grim, from air and land. “It’s going to be another four years at least before there’s cacao again in this area because they have to replant now,” he said. “It’s going to be pretty hard in four years for people to rebuild their gardens.” But then I found&nbsp;a more optimistic take.</p>

<p>Jean Frido Forestal is the cooperative’s treasurer. His office is shrouded in a tangle of downed trees, but he seemed totally unfazed. “It’s true a lot of trees were destroyed,” Forestal conceded, “but those just broken can bud again, after it rains. If you graft a tree, it can bud&nbsp;and make shade for the garden.” Pressing his point, he continued, “I know that all hope is not lost for Dame Marie, because a tree that’s not shredded, it won’t die, it won’t die, it won’t die. It is so clear, it’s certain, that tree won’t die.” Forestal insisted it won’t take four years for cocoa production to get back on track. He remembered how quickly trees rebounded after Hurricane Allen in 1980. “I think we&nbsp;can use this bad luck and take the opportunity to make improvements,” he said, “because this is an ideal moment, a propitious moment.” Let’s hope he’s right — not just for the sake of the local economy, but for the environment, too. Cacao trees love the shade of other trees, so investing in cacao means investing in diverse forests. That’s something deforested Haiti needed before Hurricane Matthew struck last month, and something it desperately needs today.</p>

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