Haitian National Rebuilding Action Plan
The upcoming Haiti Donors Conference is beginning to take shape. According to the Miami Herald, we can expect to hear support for the creation of a 20 member Interim Haiti Recovery Commission (IHRC) to oversee how and where billons of dollars of aid flowing into Haiti are spent over the next 18 months. The IHRC will establish a Haitian Development Authority (HDA) to plan, sequence, and coordinate projects, all of which will require government approval. Take a look at the National Rebuilding Action Plan, based on the Post Disaster Needs Assessment, which will also be discussed at the conference. Thank you to Haiti Vox for posting the English version. There is a lot here to think about. Ill post my thoughts in the comments section, please do the same.
ACTION PLAN FOR THE RECONSTRUCTION AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF HAITI
The post-earthquake Action Plan that we are presenting to our partners in the international community in this draft version is the expression of the needs that must be met, so that the earthquake that has so cruelly struck our country may becomes a window of opportunity for, in the words of the Head of State, the “re-foundation” of Haiti. It is a rendez-vous with History that our country cannot miss. We are obliged to yield results; we owe it to our children and our children's children. The solidarity expressed spontaneously in the hours following the disaster by Haitian men and women at home and abroad, as well as by the international community, towards our people gives us the confidence needed in this historic duty.
The plan that we propose to you is based on a collective effort of reflection and consultation. At the diplomatic level, formal and constructive talks have made us aware of the expectations of our international partners and allowed us to explain to them our choices for the future. On the technical front, officials at the national level supported by international experts conducted an evaluation of losses and damages known by its acronym PDNA (Post Disaster Needs Assessment), which is one of the pillars of this plan.
This proposal is Haitian, and despite the very tight schedule, key sectors of Haitian society were consulted. This is also the case for all Haitians living abroad who have mobilized themselves and have shown that their commitment to the future of the country remains a strong binding factor of this active solidarity. These efforts, these consultations are ongoing and will continue in the weeks and months to come. We must learn from this national tragedy, which is why the proposal made encompasses not only the devastated areas but also calls for structural changes affecting the entire national territory.
We must reverse the spiral of vulnerability by protecting our people from natural disasters, by managing our watersheds to make them secure and productive in a sustainable way, by stimulating the development of regional poles that can provide quality of life and future prospects for a growing population. In view of this, we must strengthen the links between all the regions across the country, encourage the strengthening of the regional partnerships that will bring the opportunity for change throughout the country, the Caribbean and beyond.
We need to connect these regions through a network of roads complemented by adequate port and airport facilities and a range of public services appropriate to the imperatives of economic and social development, particularly as regards education and access to quality health services. We must act now, but with a vision for the future. We need to agree on a short-term program, while creating mechanisms that make possible the preparation and implementation of detailed programs and projects that will bring about firm actions within a ten-year timeframe.
The challenge ahead is huge. This is why, as the Secretary-General of the OECD and the Chairman of the Development Assistance Committee has pointed out, we must find new ways to cooperate, based on the principles of the Paris Declaration and the principles pertaining to operations in Fragile States, notably that of making the strengthening of the state central to interventions. We understand the importance of reviewing our political, economic and social governance. We pledge to act in this regard.
1 Introduction 1
2 Summary of the PDNA
2.1 The Disaster and its Impacts
2.2 Damages, Losses and Needs
3 long term Vision and strategic option
4 IMMEDIATE PROJECTS FOR THE FUTURE
4.1 The national transport network
4.1.1 Finalization of the road grid
4.1.2 Establishment of reliable links with the country's main islands
4.1.4 Rebuilding or Building Port Infrastructure
4.2.1 Increasing the capacity of power generation :
4.2.2 Increasing the capacity of power transmission
4.2.3 Increased distribution capacity of electric power
4.3 Re-launching the national production capacity
4.4 Recovery of the Cultural Sector
4.5 Preparation for the cyclonic season
4.6 Education: Beginning of the school year, construction of schools
4.7 Health, Nutrition, Water and Sanitation
4.8 Reconstruction of devastated zones and urban renovation
4.8.1 Reconstruction operations of the devastated zones :
4.8.2 Construction sites of the new regional development centers:
4.9 National Planning and Local Development
4.9.1 National Planning
4.9.2 Infrastructure and facilities
4.1 Creation of Catchment Areas
4.11 Housing of the Population: Temporary and Permanent
4.12 Re-launch of Public Administration
4.12.1 Short-term Measures
4.12.2 Measures for the next 12 months
4.13 Justice and Security
4.14 Rebooting of economic and financial channels
4.14.1 Investment Credit
4.14.2 Reconstruction Credit
4.15 Private Investment and Public-Private Partnerships
4.16 Creation of employment which is highly labor intensive
6 MACROECONOMIC FRAMEWORK
7 FUNDING MECANISMS
7.1 Budget support
7.2 Multi donors trust fund
7.3 Funding from bilateral donors
7.4 Funds managed by and through NGOs
8 MANAGEMENT AND reconstruction structures
8.1 The intermediary commission for the reconstruction of Haiti (CIRH)
8.2 The authority for the development of Haiti (ADH)
The earthquake of January 12, 2010 struck at the heart of Haiti's capital Port-au-Prince and the towns of Léogâne, Jacmel and Petit Goave. It resulted in more than 300,000 deaths, as many were wounded according to the national authorities, 1.5 million people homeless and displaced, broken families, orphans without resources. One could go on and on to enumerate the devastating consequences of this earthquake. The damages and losses, the measures of which rise by the day, are estimated at nearly US$8 billion according to the assessment of damages and losses carried out during the past few weeks. The same study puts needs at around US$11.5 billion. Soon after the earthquake it was evident that such a toll could not be the outcome of just the force of the tremor. It is the result of:
1) excessive population density
2) a lack of adequate building standards
3) the catastrophic state of the environment
4) unregulated land use
5) unbalanced distribution of economic activity, with over 65% of economic activity and 85% of fiscal revenue concentrated in Port-au-Prince.
To rebuild Haiti does not mean to return to the situation of January 11, on the eve of the earthquake. It is to address all these areas of vulnerability, so that never again the vagaries of nature or natural disasters inflict such suffering or cause so much damage and loss. The proposed plan aims to go beyond a response to the damage and losses caused by the earthquake. It aims to initiate projects to act now while putting in place the conditions for addressing the structural causes that allowed this earthquake to hit the country so hard.
The situation that the country is facing is difficult but not desperate. In many respects it even provides an opportunity to unite Haitians of all classes and origins in the common task of “re-founding” the country on a new footing. Nobody has been spared, and no one can pick themselves up again alone. We must build on this new solidarity which is expected to result in profound changes in behavior and attitudes. That is why the plan that is being proposed is not solely that of the State, of the Government and of Parliament. It is that of all the sectors of Haitian society where everyone is called upon to play his role, in search of the collective interest that ultimately is the best guarantor of individual interests in an inclusive society.
The Post-Earthquake Action Plan
The priorities of the Post-Earthquake Action Plan are to cope immediately with the emergency, restart economic, governmental and social activities, reduce the vulnerability of the country to natural disasters and once again put Haiti on the path of development. It is based on the following principles:
1) Ensure preparedness for the hurricane season and rains of 2010, particularly for displaced populations
2) Systematically include environmental aspects in all decisions related to the process of recovery and development.
3) Ensure integration of risk and disaster management in all reconstruction activities in all sectors
4) Establish an active employment policy by supporting micro-enterprises, strengthening vocational training, incorporating principles of labor-intensive works and by involving Haitian firms, local labor and communities.
5) Gradually position the State as provider of devolution and decentralized basic services, while ensuring a substantial strengthening of its authority with regard to non-state entities. In this regard, initiate the creation of a social safety net for the poorest.
6) Decongest the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince through a policy of devolution and decentralization, by creating incentives for the population to settle around growth poles
7) Continue to provide assistance and support to 1.3 million Haitians who have lost everything and to 3 million people affected by the disaster, while accelerating the recovery process to avoid dependence on foreign aid.
The plan is divided into two phases. The first is the immediate, covering a period of one year, which constitutes the transition period before the entire machinery for the “refounding” of the state is operational. The second stage begins with a time horizon of ten years, allowing it to take account of three programming cycles of the National Strategy for Growth and Poverty Reduction.This is why the Plan proposes the setting up of an Interim Commission for the Reconstruction of Haiti and a Development Agency as well as a Multi-Donor Trust Fund that will allow preparation of a portfolio of inteventions, the development of programs and projects, their funding and execution, all in a coordinated and coherent way.
The Plan primarily targets the activities financed by public development aid since it is being set out ahead of a donor conference. It still leaves plenty of room for other actors in the business sector, private sector and NGOs who are essential drivers for the renewal of Haiti. It proposes a macroeconomic framework based on growth and a series of measures to facilitate wealth creation by the private sector.
A continuity to be ensured
Politically, Haiti has undertaken a journey to regain its full national sovereignty since the restoration of constitutionality in 2006. This journey included efforts to make existing democratic institutions work, establish those foreseen by the Constitution but that did not exist, and re-launch national growth. The process undertaken in recent years must continue. The objectives set still retain their relevance. The earthquake must not make one forget the goal to be attained: the building of a democratic Haiti inclusive and respectful of human rights. The electoral process therefore will continue once conditions are ripe for the holding of credible elections at different levels of the democratic institutions. For development, the programs and projects underway must continue once incorporated into the Post-Earthquake Action Plan or be re-deployeded for this purpose. The momentum created since 2006 must not stop. It is important to maintain the highest possible level of activity throughout the country, in particular to continue and complete the road network, support agricultural production and expand the supply of basic services to the population.
Haiti's expectations regarding the international community. Haiti expects the international community to reiterate its long-term commitment to support the country in its re-establishment and to do this with respect for Haitian leadership. Haiti asks its international partners to urgently mobilize the financial resources necessary to respond to the emergency. To do this, we must create jobs, re-house disaster victims, open schools and institutions of higher education in preparation for the new school year, provide access to health care, prepare for the hurricane season, bridge the gap in State tax revenues of the State, restart the administration and boost the economic circuits.
For these purposes, the amounts must be disbursed over a twelve month period. Budget support is an emergency and can be considered an appropriate financial mechanism in these circumstances whilst waiting for the setting up of the scheduled mechanisms: the Trust Fund and the Interim Agency.
SUMMARY OF THE PDNA
The Post-Disaster Needs Assessment (PDNA) was conducted by a joint team composed of national and international experts with the active participation of representatives of NGOs and the Haitian civil society. This chapter reflects the summary of conclusions of the exercise. Detailed tables on the losses and damages are found in Annex 1.
The Disaster and its Impacts
On January 12, 2010, shortly before 5:00 pm, an earthquake of magnitude 7.3 on the Richter scale rocked Haiti for 35 seconds. It was the most powerful earthquake to have struck the country for 200 years. The hypocenter of the earthquake was near the surface of the earth (10 km deep) and its epicentre was near the town of Leogane, about 17 km southwest of the capital. The effects were felt in the Departments of the West, Southeast and Nippes. The metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince (including the municipalities of Port-au-Prince, Carrefour, Petionville, Delmas, Tabarre, Cité Soleil and Kenscoff) was damaged extensively. 80% of the city of Léogâne was destroyed.
The earthquake has created an unprecedented situation, compounded by the fact that it has affected the country’s most populated area, as well as its economic and administrative centre. The situation is even more tragic given that for the last three years the country has experienced a phase of socio-political stability, security, economic growth and the beginnings of improvement in the living conditions of the people.
The human impact
The human impact is immense. Approximately 1.5 million people, representing 15% of the national population, were affected indirectly. More than 300,000 people, according to national authorities were killed and as many wounded. Approximately 1.3 million live in temporary shelters in the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince. Over 600,000 people have left the affected areas to seek shelter elsewhere in the country. The result is an exacerbation of existing problems regarding access to food and basic services. By striking at the heart of the economy and the Haitian Government, the earthquake has sharply impacted the human and institutional capacities of the public and private sectors, as well as international technical and financial partners and some non-governmental organizations (NGOs).
Impact on infrastructure
The destruction of infrastructure is massive. About 105,000 homes were totally destroyed and over 208,000 damaged. More than 1,300 educational institutions, more than 50 hospitals and health centres have collapsed or are unusable. The country's main port has been rendered inoperative. The Presidential Palace, the Parliament, the Court-House, the majority of buildings of the ministries and public administration has been destroyed.
Impact on the environment
While the environmental indicators were already at red, the earthquake has increased the pressure further on the environment and natural resources, thus increasing the extreme vulnerability of the Haitian people.
Damages, losses and needs
To prepare estimates of damages, losses and needs, about two hundred and fifty national and international experts have worked for nearly a month, in eight thematic teams: governance, environment and management of risks and disasters, social sectors, infrastructure, production, cross-cutting themes, territorial development and macroeconomic analysis.
The total damage and losses caused by the earthquake of January 12, 2010 is estimated at 7.9 billion dollars which is equivalent to just over 120% of GDP of the country in 2009. In fact, during the 35 years of application of the DALA methodology for estimating damages and losses, it is the first time that the cost of a disaster is as high in relation to the economy of a country, Most of the damages and losses were suffered by the private sector (5.5 billion dollars, or 70% of total), while the share of the public sector amounted to 2.4 billion or 30%.
The value of destroyed physical assets among other units of housing, schools, hospitals, buildings, roads and bridges, ports and airports - has been estimated at 4.3 billion dollars (55% of the total effects of the disaster). The variation of the economic flows (production losses, reduced turnover, loss of employment and wages, increased production costs, etc.) reached USD 3.6 billion (equivalent to 45% of total).
Housing is undoubtedly the sector most affected by the earthquake given that the total damage amounted to 2.3 billion dollars. This figure includes the value of the destruction of dwelling units of various types and qualities, the value of houses partially damaged and household assets. Losses for housing are estimated at 739 million dollars. Thus, the housing sector represents approximately 40% of the effects of the earthquake. Other sectors, in order of decreasing importance as regards the effects suffered, are trade (damages and losses of 639 million, or 8% of total), transportation and buildings of the public administration (USD 595 million each) and education and health (with an average of 6% of total).
The total value of the requirements amounts to 11.5 billion dollars and can be broken up as follows: 50% for the social sectors, 17% for infrastructure, including housing, and 15% for environment and risk and disaster management. The needs assessment was carried out as described above, from the compilation of the work of the eight thematic teams. (These estimates have not yet received an arbitration or prioritization and validation of the government. This is only the first step of further work for the conference of donors of funds to be held in New York on March 31, 2010.)
LONG TERM VISION AND STRATEGIC OPTIONS
The long term vision for Haiti is the long-term goal and describes what we want to become. Its statement is:
We share a dream: We see Haiti as an emergent country by 2030; a society of simplicity, fairness and justice; united, living in harmony with its environment, culture and a controlled modernity based on the rule of law, freedom of association and expression and national planning, with a modern, strong, dynamic, competitive, open economy and a broad territorial basis, where all basic needs of the population are met and managed by a Unitary State which is strong, acts as a guarantor of the general interest and is highly devolved and decentralized.
From the perspective of government, the path that leads to this ideal must be imbued with pragmatism as regards the capabilities and expectations. However, despite the pains and tribulations, the disaster of 12 January brings opportunities for current and future generations. A broad consensus among national and international actors is emerging more and more to that effect. In the short term, emergency actions to stabilize the population and institutions and for the redevelopment of affected areas should be continued or initiated. We have to do differently, we must do better, we must do more and we must start now. The solutions and ways of the past are no longer appropriate to the current situation and even the emergency measures necessary must fit into the long-term perspective.
The strategic option is the choice of economic, social, territorial and institutional rebuilding of Haiti, based on our culture and creativity. This choice includes:
1) the creating wealth and jobs, without which we can neither protect our environment nor improve social development;
2) developing the domestic, regional and international private sector as the prime agent of wealth and job creation;
3) providing services to the population, including as the axis of creating wealth and jobs;
4) selecting of regions to structure and balance the socioeconomic development and national territory planning;
5) selecting watersheds at the Districts level, to structure and promote the development and local territory planning:
6) ensuring social inclusion in all its forms and in particular to provide opportunities for youth, women and rural communities;
7) developing macroeconomics, to support the efforts of national and local actors;
8) building a strong State, devolved and decentralized essential to the creation of this new social contract.
IMMEDIATE PROJECTS FOR THE FUTURE
The costs of implementation of the projects are specified whenever the assessments are available. These are direct costs, which take no account of any future revenue shortfalls. These figures are not inconsistent with the PDNA assessments, but give an order of magnitude for the priority programs of the Government. The Post Earthquake Action Plan is spread over fifteen sites grouped under four programs:
1) Infrastructure programs: the national transport network including the road grid, electrification, reconstruction of devastated areas and urban renewal.
2) Governance: justice and security, restart of the public administration, territorial planning and local development.
3) Reducing vulnerability of the people and basic services: education, health, preparation for the hurricane season, PIIP job creation program, peoples’ housing and watershed management.
4) Economic Growth: recovery in domestic production, cultural production, economic and financial systems, creation of jobs.
A NATIONAL TRANSPORT NETWORK
The earthquake of 12 January this year has highlighted the vulnerability of infrastructure ensuring trade with foreign countries, the weakness of the regional economic framework and lack of hosting capacity of displaced populations in the provinces. Today, we must increase opportunities for trade within and outside which have failed after the earthquake. Transport infrastructure must be rehabilitated or constructed to increase the opportunities for external communications; we must end the isolation of certain areas of the country, enable the creation of clusters and sub-clusters of development, facilitate the flow of agricultural production at the regional and local levels, allow the growth of tourism and improve access to public services. The completion of the road grid, establishment of reliable connections providing access to the main islands of the country, the rehabilitation or construction of three international airports and reconstruction or construction of port facilities are now proving essential for both the regional and international integration of Haiti and for its political, economic and social integration.
Given the nature of some investments planned, the implementation of certain projects will require the participation of the private sector. For others, the establishment of management systems and public service is essential, especially for greater administrative devolution.
The finalization of the road grid
The national highway network is a driving-force allowing bringing together all the development zones in the country which connects all the towns and ensures trade with the Dominican Republic. Its implementation enables a network of secondary roads from the main network facilitating access to all areas of the country. A proper national road network is essential. It allows the inputs to production arrive and finished finished products to circulate. It allows tourists access to the geographic and cultural potential of the country. It gives patients the access to networks of health services and students the access to education. It is also a precondition for effective decentralization and devolution, including that of the state. The inclusion of all citizens also implies access to all geographic regions of the country. The completion of the road network targets the construction of some 500 kilometres of roads, divided into several segments, which will add to the existing ones and to those for which funding has already been agreed to.
Establishment of reliable links with the country's main islands
Like the finalization of the road grid, establishing reliable connections providing access to the main islands of the country that are the island of Gonave, Ile of the Tortue and Ile-à-Vache, is a priority for political, economic and social integration.
Following the logic of regional balance and openness to the outside, the international air traffic will be spread over three major airports located close to major cities: Cap Haitien, Port-au-Prince and Les Cayes. The earthquake of 12 January this year has caused significant damage to infrastructure and equipment of the airport of Port-au-Prince, the only international airport in the country if we ignore local airports with regional exchanges. The airport must be rehabilitated and, in the context of the country's industrialization and the development of tourism, these facilities should be expanded. The creation of a regional economic framework to help promote development of all areas of the country and consolidation of opportunities international exchange in the event of an earthquake require the construction of two other international airports, one in the north, on the Atlantic and the other in the south, on the Caribbean, to maximize opportunities and promote regional and international integration of Haiti.
The reconstruction or the construction of port infrastructure
The earthquake of 12 January this year has also heavily damaged infrastructure and port facilities in Port-au-Prince, the biggest commercial port in Haiti. This port is located in downtown Port-au-Prince, where it has partially long blocked the opening of the city to the bay of Port-au-Prince. The reallocation of the area for institutional, commercial and recreational purposes more appropriate to a downtown of a modern capital has long been overdue. Moreover, the location of the port does not allow for the expansion required for the increase of traffic or docking of large ships. This port will be rebuilt in a more suitable area north of the capital in the area of Fond Mombin where an expansion to the north of the city of Port-au-Prince is scheduled. Moreover, other port infrastructure will be rehabilitated or constructed to enable the industrialization of other areas of the country to split the job opportunities in the territory and promote the creation of clusters and sub-regional poles for development.
Before the earthquake, the supply of electricity was largely insufficient relative to demand and was concentrated in certain areas of the country, greatly limiting the development potential of areas with little or no power. Following the earthquake on January 12 last, the capacity of generation, transmission and distribution of existing power has been greatly diminished in the affected areas, increasing an already great need. The rehabilitation of production infrastructure, transport and distribution of electricity were quickly introduced following the earthquake so that many disaster areas have already been reconnected. This reconstruction work should be continued and more work should be undertaken to remove this obstacle to reconstruction and socio-economic development. Major investments targeting increased production capacities, transport and distribution of electricity are required in all areas of the country in order to increase the number and quality of economic activities that generate employment allowing a better spatial distribution of development opportunities and increasing the quality of life of the people.
Investments must be oriented and strategically planned so that eventually we can ensure adequate supply levels that will create favourable conditions for rehabilitation or development of key sectors of the Haitian economy, especially in new development areas. For the short and medium term goals will target the provision of electricity in the developing zones and sub zones of the country, particularly in the main towns of departments and district which are due to play an important role in the establishment of industrial, agro-industrial, trade and tourism zones. The revenues that will be generated by the energy supply will allow reinvestment in the expansion and improvement of the service. Moreover, given the nature and high amounts of investment required to develop a sustainable solution for increasing the energy capacity of the country, some projects or components of the system of production, transport and distribution of electricity, require the participation of the private sector.
Increasing the capacity for power generation
The rehabilitation and development of production capacity will be made on several fronts. The needs and projects already identified include: the rehabilitation of the Péligre power plant, construction of the Artibonite C-4 hydroelectric dam and the rehabilitation of the power plants of Sault Mathurin and North Caracol. Thermal power plants will be built and put into operation in areas that could not be supplied otherwise and where strong economic activities will be developed (free zones, zones and sub zones of development). Finally, the development of alternative forms of power generation based on wind energy is planned for the north, the central plateau and the southern peninsula, where promising potential have already been identified.
On a smaller scale, clean energy sources like wind and solar energy can be exploited to provide energy for specific communities or meet specific needs (small rural communities, island communities, seaside areas, government facilities in region, in processing hubs for agricultural products, etc.) or supply power to a variety of equally specific equipment such as street lights.
Increasing the capacity for power transmission
Increased capacity and efficiency of power transmission is based primarily on the rehabilitation of existing networks damaged during the earthquake and on the development of a national power transmission network. The rehabilitation of the network will prioritize the affected areas in the region of Port-au-Prince, the axis Léogane - Petit Goave and the southern department when its development should be oriented to promote supply to the present and potential growth areas of the country. In the area of Port-au-Prince, the construction of the substation of Tabare is an essential strategic asset in the strategy of increasing the capacity of power transmission.
Increased distribution capacity of electrical power
The rehabilitation of distribution networks of electricity located in the main areas affected by the earthquake should be pursued in the short term. However, in the near future, to help revive economic activity in the region, support the development of regional and local economies and create jobs across the territory, the development of different local distribution networks of electric power to fuel growth sectors and areas will require financing, where levels of customer profitability are positive and for satisfying the basic needs of the population. A significant effort should be made as to the proper management of the distribution network. The phenomenon of illegal connections must be contained and reduced to a minimum and maintaining networks should be adequate to reduce technical losses.
RE-LAUNCH OF NATIONAL PRODUCTION
The challenges of agriculture, livestock, fisheries and food weigh heavily on the socioeconomic situation and the future of the country. Today, agriculture remains the largest employment generator sector in Haiti: it occupies over 50% of the workforce. Therefore agriculture is one of the pillars of the country's stability, an essential axis of its development. In the past, Haiti fully met the food needs of its population. This is no longer the case today: The country currently uses about 80% of its export earnings just to pay for food imports. Food insecurity is very high and makes the country and its people highly vulnerable to natural and socio-natural hazards and equally vulnerable vis-à-vis the fluctuating prices of basic food commodities on international markets.
The diversity of backgrounds related to altitude, soil type or climate, results in great diversity of the crops grown in Haiti. This variety of products is an asset. The Coastal Plains give way to Plateaus and these to the hills that do not have the same potentials or the same constraints. Overall, the erosion of the fertile soil layer is fast and occurs when the tree or shrub cover of a culture is not restored. The land is dark and farms are usually small, which further adds to the difficulties of farmers.
Some agricultural practices and crop choices motivated by the dynamics of market prices generate a reduction of wooded land, which has the effect of increasing erosion, reducing soil quality and the quality of coastal fishing zones, increasing the frequency and strength of floods which, in turn, periodically cause the destruction of facilities and transport infrastructure that are strategic for agriculture and the economy in general and cause the destruction of houses, crops and significant losses of agricultural land. Agriculture and marketing structure for agricultural products therefore have a significant impact on the country's environment and the vulnerability of the territory and its population. These environmental impacts are a threat to the viability of the territory and the Haitian State. As far as fishing is concerned, certain practices encourage overuse of certain sites and, ultimately, the loss of their potential. Farmers and fisherman usually work with primitive tools. The modernization of equipment, when requested by the farmer or fisherman, requires funding that is currently inaccessible.
Irrigation systems do not always work efficiently and are far from meeting the needs of farms. The flood damage or destroy the thresholds, canals, walls of protection. The difficulties of access to electricity are another constraint common to most of the sectors. The network is almost nonexistent in rural areas. The lack of penetration roads in good condition and lack of conservation and processing units for products are also major constraints to the regular supply of well preserved products in markets. Many socio-economic problems are related to these deficiencies. The rural economy is largely a subsistence economy mainly because trading opportunities are limited by the difficulties and costs of travel by road and by the lack of opportunities for conservation and transformation. The post-harvest losses are considerable. Not only the most sensitive fruit are affected by these bad conditions, but also vegetables, tubers and cash crops for export. This is also the case of livestock products and fisheries whose marketing suffers from the same structural weaknesses.
The earthquake resulted in an immediate exodus of population from the urban area of Port au Prince, a number of people having moved to the rural areas to their original villages. As a result, many host families already impoverished must bear an additional burden on receiving displaced destitute families.
Agriculture, livestock and fisheries, together constitute one of the primary forces of economic revitalization and recovery of regional and local economies. The project for boosting domestic production should provide support for these products. It usually involves the following objectives: (i) an increased offer of agricultural food products in the country, through the availability of agricultural inputs in the different areas of production and improvement of marketing channels, (ii) defining strategies for the integration of displaced populations, (iii) improving access to food by increasing the circulation of money through job creation in rural areas, (iv) research of an integration of national production and food aid and (v) the preparation of the next hurricane season also dealt more broadly.
THE IMPLEMENTATION OF 5 PROGRAMMES IS TARGETED:
The first program will provide funding for the purchase and distribution of fertilizer, seeds, ploughing equipment, tractors for the farmers as well as tools and fishing equipment for fishermen at reasonable price so as to increase productivity. A second program will provide funding for the digging of hill lakes and the construction of irrigation networks allowing water management, which is essential to the increasing of productivity for agricultural enterprises. A third program will finance the construction of rural roads that open up farming zones. This could possibly bring about a reduction in the number of speculators thereby equally benefiting fishermen and the population in general. A fourth program will finance the recapitalization of agricultural enterprise by giving producers access to credit on acceptable conditions and rates. It will also finance the development of very small and small and medium enterprises so as to increase the value added to the production, limit the losses incurred during the transformation of products that cannot be sold fresh and increase the incomes of the farmers. A fifth program will finance the improvement of conditions of slaughter and the preservation of meat, stock breeding and fishing products, that will guarantee the quality of the products and thus increase the profitability of these operations.
RECOVERY IN THE CULTURAL SECTOR
The choice of culture as the central theme in the head of government’s speech during the launching of the sectoral workshops is an indication of the State’s desire to underline the pressing need to take into account this particular element, the marginalization of which has led to the failure of developmental support programs in practically every country over the course of several years. Thus, if a country has to be restructured, it is essential that culture be a driving force that contributes as significantly to economic growth as do other key sectors of national life. Given the background of globalized exchanges, it is necessary to create conditions that allow the effective development of a market for cultural goods and services that favor the plurality of expressions both from a creative point of view as well as the expression of know-how and practices drawn from different horizons.
It is advisable to make every effort to favor the creation of an infrastructure of goods and cultural services across the country, and to develop the territory while taking into account the hereditary character that is specific to different sites. Moreover, keeping in view the policy of decentralization, institutional strengthening will be specifically aimed at local governments for the development of cultural policies and implementation mechanisms in the regions.
First of all, emphasis will be laid on sectors of creative industries that are nourished by creativity and heredity, sectors in which Haiti has significant attributes, all the while taking care not to ignore collateral activities. Thereafter cultural goods protected by intellectual property will be taken into account. Finally, other sectors of culture will gradually be opened up to the economy.
This choice forces the encouragement of the development of economic activities that emphasize intellectual production and traditional know-how. For this, steps that promote the relocation or settlement in areas that have good cultural potential are necessary. Apart from the development of local cultural entrepreneurship, it is advisable to create conditions favoring the establishment and the operation of a portfolio of intellectual property rights which are the raw materials for the productions of the mind and for certain sections of traditions.
Contemporary creations develop an important market value when the market establishes a substantial reputation for the creators. In some creative domains, the association with heritage exponentially increases the quoted rates of artistic productions. It is therefore important on the one hand, to put tools into place that favor the resurgence of intellectual production in the cultural goods and services’ markets and on the other, to encourage the establishment of a cultural heritage. These are the two pivots that participate in the construction of markets that revolve around the support to creation and the valorization of cultural heritage.
The integration of culture into economic life, apart from the promotion of cultural products, stems not only from a desire to develop the creativity, the imagination and the investments of cultural entrepreneurs but also to prepare the introduction in full force of Haitian society to the economy of the immaterial. What is needed is to draw the national economy out from its dependence on trade to open it up to sectors that have a high appreciation rate. This reinforcement will therefore emphasize activities that have high intellectual density with the aim of stimulating the economy of the country with what constitutes our strength, namely our artistic talents and the richness of our cultural heritage.
All this presupposes that the State sends clear signals demonstrating its desire to contribute to the transformation of the cultural sector into an economical domain that is both a viable and an enviable domain.
The main elements of the recovery strategy
1) Setting up and operation of a system of cultural management that simultaneously allows the State to exercise its functions of observation, control and regulation on the one hand and that ensures on the other hand, the accessibility of all to the means of production and to cultural goods.
2) Guaranteeing the development of cultural industries through funding and by the development of an appropriate legal framework
3) Propagate the promotion of our heritage through cultural education programs in schools.
4) Integration of Haiti with the world through promotion of cultural cooperation and exchange.
Table 3 summarizes the very short-term (6 months), short-term (18 months) and medium-term needs (3 years)
Components Percentage Need in USD
-Very short term 30% - 60,570,750
-Short term 50% - 100,951,250
-Medium term 20% - 40,380,500
Culture has the double potential of ensuring quantitative development by contributing to an increase in production and consumption capacity and qualitative development by strengthening the social fabric essential for the development of human capital at the individual and collective level. Haiti, strengthened by its cultural wealth and its cultural contribution to the world, with special reference to the Caribbean region, will rely on its material and immaterial cultural resources for its restructuration/revival.
The execution of these main elements will necessitate a sum of 202,000,000 USD. The programs and projects that result from these elements will be presented through the organization of an international forum on culture.
PREPARATION FOR THE CYCLONIC SEASON
Every year, and this year of 2010 in particular, when the 12th January earthquake affected the whole country through population movement, the rain and cyclone season has represented a huge challenge for the country. This is due to the totality of the country that is exposed to severe climatic vagaries and acute infrastructural constraints. It is therefore necessary to reduce the vulnerability of the population and that of areas in climatic risk zones. Measures are needed to protect the the population of areas that are traditionally hit by natural calamities such as Gonaives, Jacmel et Cabaret. These measures include dredging and retracing rivers and drainage canals, protection and correction of the banks of some rivers and ravines, and construction of necessary civil works for crossings in risk areas. In response to this short-term priority, a contingency plan for preparedness to face and respond to climatic vagaries is being prepared. A larger program also needs to be put into place keeping in view the medium and long term perspectives.
In seismic zones, it is essential to put into place works for preventive dredging of drainage, collection and treatment canals and works for stabilization of ravine banks in affected zones to prevent catastrophes and to safeguard the remaining private and public infrastructure relics.
EDUCATION: BEGINNING OF THE SCHOOL YEAR, CONSTRUCTION OF SCHOOLS
The re-launching of school activities over the very short term period is one of the State’s priorities. The following are the main elements of the strategy developed by the MENFP:
1) Guarantee with equity the return to school of all students in the three departments directly affected as well as to those who migrated to other departments;
2) Provision of aid for education to all children attending existing school structures;
3) Provision of necessary pedagogical and administrative support to teachers and other personnel involved in education;
4) Emphasis on the restarting of higher and technical education;
5) Preparation of the next school year;
6) Pursue the policy of education for all.
In concrete terms, this means:
1) Establishing more than 4000 shelters, organizing the reception of students in departments that were directly and indirectly affected.
2) Setting up different packages for each of the affected categories (students, teachers, school directors/administrators), including the provision of psycho-social assistance. As an illustration, for the very short term, school fees will be paid by the state.
3) Providing specific support to the professional training and higher education sectors, which were particularly affected, adaptation of the school calendar, curriculum and evaluation systems, and provision of equipment and means necessary for this re-launch.
4) Putting into place the basis for the reconfiguration of the educational system.
5) Reconfiguring training supply.
The cost of this re-launch is estimated at USD 914,700,000 for the next twelve months.
HEALTH, NUTRITION, WATER AND SANITATION
The phase of recovery of the health sector requires a concentration of effort on primary health, and on mobile clinics so as to improve the system of surveillance and control of epidemics. Moreover, specialized care must be provided, including care to ensure the follow-up of patients who have undergone major surgical treatment such as amputations. International players will have to continue to work under the supervision of the Ministry of Public Health and Population, to ensure the quickest possible restoration of an improved system of supply of care and surveillance. The large sums of money that have already been mobilized through urgent humanitarian appeals cover only a small fraction of the real needs for the recovery of this sector, which include the reconstruction of destroyed infrastructure, and the construction of referral hospitals and health centers throughout the country, which are necessary keeping in view the national planning policy that is advocated by the government.
The reconstruction needs for recovery to launch the health system in the short term amount to around 546 million USD of which over 100 million USD has been mobilized by humanitarian players. For the reconstruction of an accessible and equitable system over the next three years, the need amounts to around 946 million USD. In particular, 30 hospitals out of the 49 that existed in the earthquake affected regions need to be better reconstructed, as well as the existing state controlled and training infrastructure. It is also imperative to initiate the construction of eight referral hospitals in the administrative centers of the departments at an average cost of 30 million USD each. Projects that are already in progress such as the planning of a referral hospital in Gonaïves, which are a part of a policy of reinforced services based on decentralization, will have to be continued and accelerated.
There is a risk of malnutrition rates rising during the rainy season. The detection and the treatment of malnutrition will have to be improved so as to ensure coverage throughout the territory. A security net that targets households at risk will be put into place and around 495,000 children below the age of 5 and 200,000 pregnant and lactating mothers will be given additional nutritional supplements. More generally, acute malnutrition among children (between 6 and 69 months) will have to be managed through the distribution of supplements and the setting up of a national system of 10,000 multipurpose agents and 45,000 assistants at the community level to implement a malnutrition prevention program.
The strategy of recovery and reconstruction for drinking water and sanitation revolves around the existing sectoral strategy. It is important to improve solid waste management in the short term (12 to 18 months) so as to improve the quality of life by ensuring the collection and disposal of more than 200,000 m3/ per month of solid waste from the capital and the 10 most important urban areas. Priority will be given to the setting up of 8 disposal sites (USD 43 Millions) and 5 additional sites (USD 51 Millions) for effectively serving the metropolitan zone and 10 urban areas comprising a population of 5 million inhabitants. Moreover, the progressive stoppage of makeshift temporary services will be put in place over a period of 3 years, to ensure the construction of a system of drinking water supply and sanitation in the country using cheap and socially adapted technology. The objectives to be attained are: 60 % coverage of drinking water in metropolitan zones and 73 % in other urban areas and rural areas; sanitation coverage of 58 % in metropolitan zones and 50 % in other urban areas and rural areas (USD 400 million, of which USD200 million is already available). The setting up of a national policy in the water and sanitation sector will be supported by the strengthening of technical development of the management and financial autonomy of the operators in the country and through a national campaign for the improvement of hygienic practices and the promotion of the sanitation of the totality of the population – with a target of 5 million in the metropolitan areas and in the 10 large urban areas (USD 70 million) in the first 18 months.
RECONSTRUCTION OF DEVASTATED AREAS AND URBAN RENEWAL
Following the massive destruction caused by the 12th January, 2010, earthquake, massive urban works will be needed on several fronts, and in different geographical sectors in a coherent manner. These large urban works are specifically targeted towards the renovation of the three large affected zones which are the metropolitan zone of Port-au-Prince, the Léogane-Petit Goâve axis, and the department of the south east including Jacmel. Simultaneously, the construction of the largest regional centres of development will also take place.
The results of these large work sites relating to the setting up of a national transport network, the national electricity supply, education, and health, will enable either the finalization or the initiation of the setting up of large economic infrastructure and big collective installations. These structures and also the networks which are associated with them are all necessary for the development of Haiti. They will enable the establishment of base conditions for the creation of new regional development centres and will participate in the urban renovation of the zones that have been considered.
Reconstruction operations of the devastated zones
Apart from the large constructions relating to the relocation of the victims described below, works of extreme urgency will have to be undertaken or accelerated immediately on a large scale in an organized and coherent manner. This effort needs to be guided by a strategic view to recover the devastated zone and reconstruct the corresponding urban zones. These works include those of clearing and removal of debris, dredging of ravines, drainage, collection and dégraveur canals, and stabilization of ravine banks. These specific works, and specially those associated with the management of debris, will extend over several years. They need to count on the constant availability of equipment, and operations budgets. Evaluation of the quantity of debris has already begun, and strategic sites for the sorting and disposal of material have been considered. The sites for the final disposal of debris will have to be confirmed. Their evaluation will have to take into account the valuation of recovered material through their recycling for the recovery and construction of strategic urban spaces, in particular, the recovery of coastal zones for public use.
Following this, or in parallel, the reconstruction of devastated urban zones will take place. Considering the volume of the works to be executed, the establishment of work sites in the affected areas will have to depend upon a strategic and multi sectoral development plans of action for each sectoral region and upon an operation plan per zone and per sector. In parallel, the implementation of a communication strategy with the community will have to be carried out.
Construction sites of the new regional development centers
In order to develop and consolidate the new regional centers of development that will enable the decentralization of economic activities and obtain a better redistribution of population and wealth in the national territory, the various works carried out in the large worksites for Haiti’s future need to be coherent with a long term strategic vision of development and in line with the orientation and directive principles of the national planning scheme for development of the territory.
The regional centers of development need to be clearly identified and the prioritization of their development must be agreed upon. In the metropolitan region of Port-au-Prince, a new regional development and growth centre has already been agreed upon and corresponds to the development of the Cabaret sector in the Fond Mombin zone, otherwise known as “the Northern Pole” of Port-au-Prince. Special efforts for the coordination of the various interventions, and massive investments in infrastructure, equipment and establishment of basic services need to be agreed to. Regional centers of development have also been identified in other regions of the country. For example, the city of Cayes, the city of Saint-Marc, the city of Gonaives, the city of Hinche and the city of the Haitian Cape which will also have to form regional centers on par with Port-au-Prince, structuring development. A consensus seems to be developing regarding the prioritization of the construction of the regional centers of development of the Haitian Cape, Cayes, Saint-Marc, Gonaives, and Hinche.
These regional centers are strategically situated in the national territory. They serve a significant population number and each one relies on a development base and comparative development advantages which are unique to them. These could be at the level of their industrial, port facilities or airport development potential, or at the level of their agricultural, agro-industrial or tourism development potential. In each of these regional development centers, large economic infrastructure, that include industrial parks, and large collective facilities such as national referral hospitals and state universities will need to be set up orconsolidated.
The development and management of these large facilities and infrastructure for production (industrial zones, business free zones, etc.) or as an aid to production (ports, airports, energy and telecom infrastructure, etc.) will necessitate huge investments and adequate management capabilities. Partnerships between the public sector and national and international private sectors need to be considered. On the same lines, specific areas could be the subject of special developmental measures that take into consideration the setting up of mixed management companies that would take charge of the totality of their development (for example: business free zones, port-industrial development zones; tourism development zones etc.).
The development of each of these regional development centers should be based on strategic regional development plans and their implementation should be guided by detailed project execution and development plans, and implementation programs. The projects will have to be in accordance with regional development and national planning schemes that correspond to local town planning programs
NATIONAL PLANNING AND LOCAL DEVELOPMENT
Large work sites relating to the creation of a national transport network, the electrification of the country and growth in national production will enable either the finalization or the initiation of the creation of large economic infrastructure projects which are necessary for Haiti’s development. On their part, large work sites relating to education and health will enable the creation of collective facilities and networks that are associated with them. The location of large infrastructure projects and large public facilities should in due course catch up with the administrative centers. This is where national development ends and local development begins.
The development of the territory, be it at the national level or the regional and local level, should enable a reduction of the economic, social and environmental vulnerability of the population, the organization and structuring of the territory; the orientation of rural development and control of urbanization; a reduction in regional disparities; ensure a balanced distribution of infrastructure, facilities and services in the territory; encourage the promotion of a balance between the urban and rural population; the protection, rehabilitation and enhancement of the environment and natural surroundings, ensure the protection of the countryside and the historical and cultural heritage; provide to the resident and future populations without discrimination, living, employment, and service conditions that meet the diversity of their needs and resources; management of the soil in an economical way; the protection of agricultural land; and allow the support and sustainable enhancement of natural resources and economic activity.
The large national worksites will enable the financing of several land development activities at the national and regional levels of development. The funding of local, economic, social, cultural, and territorial development activities is indispensable for economic growth, for improvement of basic services for the population, and for the improvement of the living environment and the standards of living of the population.
Moreover, at the local level of development, national planning and the choice of local development activities should be inscribed in a framework that ensures sustainability. In order to do this, decentralized administration, territorial collectivities, and civil society should simultaneously work towards the development, the choice and implementation of orientations, objectives, and national planning activities in order to stimulate economic growth, create employment, fight against poverty, and favor a more rational use of the territory and of natural resources.
The rational use of the territory and resources requires the elaboration of plans and schemes that enable an applied coordination of development activities. Since national planning is a political as well as a technical process, plans and schemes should be carried out at the main territorial levels that enable political orientation and coordination of the development and that correspond preferably to the economic, social, cultural and environmental developmental spaces. Moreover, in so far as the execution of plans and schemes requires time, exceptional steps need to be implemented to resolve the present developmental problems. The setting up of two programs is targeted on this basis:
A first program will fund the drawing up of a national planning scheme, the development of regional targeted strategies, the drawing up of local development and land improvement schemes, and the development of town planning schemes. These tools are indispensable for coordination of activities on the ground, for the determination of the priorities to be implemented and for risk management.
A second program will fund the protection, rehabilitation and enhancement of ten zones of interest both from the point of view of local development and national development. The durability of Haiti’s rich natural and cultural wealth needs to be ensured whether it be the water towers of St-louis de Nord-Borgne, Marmelade-Dondon; Vallières-Mont Organisé, Savanette-Baptiste, Dame Marie-Anse d’Haineault, Pic Macaya, Léogane-Bainet, or of Séguin-Forêt des Pins-Savane Zombi; or the historical park of the Citadelle and the Pestel-Cayemites-péninsule de Barradères area.
Infrastructure and facilities
Local development requires the setting up and operation of several infrastructure and facilities under the scope of the administration of national and local government, sometimes in partnership with the private sector and civil society. The cost of installation of all the services, infrastructure and facilities that contribute to the local development of all the zones of the country is too prohibitive to be taken on in the short or medium term. It is thus necessary to both prioritize and provide sufficient flexibility to local participants for them to take part in the resolution of problems that affect them and in the enhancement of the potential of their territory. The implementation of two programs is targeted on this basis:
A first program will fund the setting up of secondary public roads, drinking water supply, sanitation networks (drainage/ rehabilitation, construction and/or dredging of ravines), waste collection networks, the choice of which will be determined in collaboration with the local participants.
A second program will allow the constitution of a local fund for development and national planning that will be placed at the disposal of the local participants to fund as per their choice the gradual implementation of other types of facilities or local developmental infrastructure such as: urban and intercity transport networks, public markets, public spaces, cultural and sports facilities and parks and green spaces. This fund will also enable the funding of economic development activities that could be suggested and implemented by the private sector and that include the setting up of local productive systems.
The management of catchment areas must be carried out within the framework of national planning and risk management without which these areas will be doomed to failure in Haiti. The impact of floods on the population and on infrastructure and facilities must be reduced. It is however, also necessary to eliminate the causes of these floods. Therefore, corrective works must be carried out along with changes in harmful practices. For this purpose, catchment area development projects, reforestation and soil conservation projects must be conceptualized in association with rural communities and will have to match agricultural needs with the requirements of environmental protection. Several works will have to be carried out within this framework. The implementation of three programs is targeted:
A first program will fund protection and correction works in catchment areas. It will be an addition to existing programs and will allow the reforestation of areas that are essential for soil protection. It will also allow corrections to be made to ravines and river banks, building of dykes and the construction of hillside restraints to control the flow of water and thus protect the population, facilities and infrastructure that are downstream of the river. A second program will fund the implementation of a plan for the substitution of wood charcoal in order to reduce the felling of wood. A third program will fund the implementation of a plan that will orient agricultural producers towards suitable practices. Steps to regulate the use of soils, town planning and construction laws will accompany these programs. The implementation of these programs will have to be closely coordinated with the programs suggested for the re-launch of national production which also include provisions to this effect.
HOUSING OF THE POPULATION: TEMPORARY AND PERMANENT
The temporary housing of the population displaced by the effects of the earthquake is a huge challenge. A little more than half of the almost 1, 2 million displaced people would have today found some suitable means of housing. More than 2 months after the earthquake, there are still more than 500,000 people living in precarious conditions. Of this number, around 250,000 live in 17 of the nearly 600 spontaneous camps who show an increased risk concerning well being and security. Works have been undertaken to house more than 100,000 of these people in camps that have been set up in the North of the capital. This housing could last several months. The Government and the International Community are doing all that they can so that the works which have just begun may be completed before the next rainy season. There are therefore around 350,000 people for whom no solution has been identified. Whenever possible, others will be encouraged to return to their homes. An accompaniment will also be provided during this step. Several measures will have to be taken to resolve this situation among which are:
1) The continuation of distribution of temporary shelters and other material assistance
2) The construction of other temporary equipped camps
3) The construction of permanent settlement sites but with temporary shelters that will be developed as permanent shelters in time by the residents;
4) The construction of permanent settlement sites with permanent shelters.
RESTARTING THE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
Two sets of measures contribute to the launch of public administration: short term measures and measures spanning 12 months.
Short Term Measures
Starting central administrations: Some central administrative organizations have already begun the launch of their activities on the sites of their former buildings (MENFP, MJSP, MARNDR) or in spaces that belonged to them (MEF, MTPTC). The large majority of ministries have still not resolved their problems of premises. Some available buildings are being redeveloped to be allotted and extra temporary spaces need to be built.
These spaces will not be able to hold all the services and government officers of the ministries. The launch of activities will have to be carried out from a small solid core of essential services to ensure a minimal but satisfactory functioning. In these temporary installations, one will take care to bring closer administrative bodies who have been called upon to work together, particularly in the management of crisis.
Strengthening of territorial administration
This administrative reorganization in crisis situations is not limited to the central administration. During the next weeks, a program will be set up to strengthen decentralized administrations and authorities by suggesting to government officials belonging to the executive and technician categories who are not part of the essential central administrative services, that they accept postings in departmental and sub departmental (districts), in Delegations and Vice-Delegations and in some big community administrations which have seen the massive arrival of citizens displaced by the earthquake. This program will include incentives in the form of beneficiary measures, housing help and career progression advantages. This program will be proof of a real desire to restructure the State based on the principle of improving services for the population by bringing them closer to their clientele.
Reconstitution of a critical mass of qualified human resources
In order to reconstitute the pool of qualified human resources affected by the earthquake, three actions will be undertaken in a joint manner in the immediate and very short term:
1) Drafting a consolidated training plan drawing upon the National School of Administration and Public Policy (École Nationale d’Administration et de Politiques Publiques (ÉNAPP). To fulfill this mission, the ENAPP will take the support of international networks that have offered to pay for part of the training that is to be provided.
2) Drawing up and implementation of a program of involvement of executives and technicians of the Diaspora in the process of construction/reconstruction of the country. Haitian professionals who respond to this appeal will be posted in priority to public services at the central or territorial levels.
3) Proceed with the recruitment of young qualified diploma holders who have certain minimal academic qualifications and bring them up to standard over the course of three years by initial and continuing training.
Re-launch after adaptation of the implementation of the Executive-program for state reform
The implementation of the executive–program for state reform should be carried out after having made the adjustments to the new circumstances to make it one of the instruments for restructuring of the State.
Measures for the next 12 months
During the course of the next 12 months, the following measures will be adopted and put into place in order to achieve a new equilibrium between the central administration, decentralized services and decentralized authorities:
One objective: Within 5 years, reduce the proportion of State functionaries in central administration to 20% and bring that of decentralized services to 80% (not including PNH, teachers and health service agents). This objective is such that it will satisfy the regional development centers, and will help in the better distribution of public services in the territory.
Concrete accompaniment measures: completion of administrative centers in departments and districts, encouraging government officers to settle in the provinces by providing beneficiary incentives and housing help as also by offering career development advantages.
A redefinition of the respective roles of the central administration and decentralized services, leading to a modification of relationships between them: refocusing of central administration on prospective functions, drafting of legislative and regulatory texts, piloting of decentralized services, evaluation of public policy, control of services; reinforcement of decentralized services on implementation of ministerial and inter ministerial policies, development of consultation methods between the center and the periphery, in particular in the evaluation of human and budgetary needs, affirmation of the roles of the departmental and vice departmental delegates in the coordination of services on the field.
A progressive increase in decentralised skills through emphasis on community facilities. The objective is that five years from now the Haitian population living in a regional development centre will have local services provided by their municipality (water, sewerage, solid waste, maintenance of municipal roads) i.e. 50% of the total population; this cover will have to be increased in the coming years so that it can be extended to the entire territory by 2020.
An increase in the role of municipalities in reducing vulnerabilities and protecting the inhabitants through decentralisation of urbanisation rules and an increase in means of civil protection in the municipalities and municipal zones.
Some concrete decentralisation measures: training and recruitment of executives (at least 3 senior executives per municipality – one administrative and two technical, i.e. approximately 500 executives to be trained till 2020), building of offices and making provision of technical equipments, starting with regional development centres.
A progressive increase of local resources: initially the local governments will remain dependant on grants from the State but they will have to develop their own resources through a locally adapted taxation system. By the year 2020, State grants should not be more than 50% of the functional revenue of the municipalities of poles of development and by the year 2025 for other municipalities.
For the reinstallation of administration in permanent premises, the study and implementation of means to ensure a better reception of public and to develop modern information and communication techniques in public services:
1) Opening of government internet portal
2) Implementation of a communication system for the government through intranet
3) Development of means to communicate with the population, especially by using mobile telephones (for example: for passing on alerts)
4) Setting up of systems that allow the users to approach the administration online. This measure is to be connected to the digital networks covering the entire territory. Today it is an indispensable condition for the development of private investments. The implementation cost of all these measures for the next twelve months is estimated at USD175,000,000.
JUSTICE AND SECURITY
For the next six months the priority of the Government is to re-establish the system of justice and public security on the territory through its Ministry of Justice and Public Security. In order to achieve this, the following will be required:
1) Re-establishment and reinforcement of the operational capacities of those involved in the justice and public security machinery;
2) Guarantee of access to justice and security of affected communities and of those communities hosting displaced people;
3) Creation of favourable conditions to perpetuate good administration of justice and public security for the post-crisis situation.
To accomplish the first objective, it will be necessary to provide the services of the Ministry of Justice and Public Security (Ministry, PNH, DAP) and the judicial institutions with equipments and adequate provisional infrastructure allowing them to work in the zones affected by the earthquake and in the zones receiving displaced people. Tents and containers will be required for lodging the Services of the Ministry and National Police, for the Department of Penitentiary Administration, for the County Courts and Peace Courts.
It is necessary to undertake the rehabilitation of the buildings that were affected as well as to restart and accelerate the recruitment process of new PNH agents. It will also be necessary to reinforce the personnel of MJSP services and judicial institutions in order to respond in case of need in the zones that were affected and in those hosting displaced people.
The second objective will be achieved through the development of a preventive strategy by the PNH for ensuring the security of persons and especially of vulnerable and displaced people, by reinforcing the access to Law and Justice of the people affected and particularly of women and through the capacity of affected communities to develop violence prevention strategies.
In the short term, it will be necessary to:
1) Consolidate the rule of law by increasing the number and quality of national police and by pursuing reforms in the justice delivery mechanism and penitentiary administration:
2) Recruitment of policemen in the first phase for rebuilding the units affected by the earthquake, i.e. approximately 500 agents dead, injured or not available. In the second phase the objective is to reach the rate of 1 police person per 800 inhabitants by 2012, i.e. an addition of 2,500 agents. This rate will become 1 police person per 600 inhabitants by the end 2015, for a total of 16,000 police personnel, up from the current strength of 9,500. This recruitment policy must be accompanied by construction of police stations or their expansion (this involves 46 police stations), provision of logistical means and miscellaneous equipments (vehicles, uniforms, arms, communication systems), as well as a housing policy to ensure better availability. The responsibility of MINUSTAH will be lessened in measure.
3) Complete the implementation of the National School of Jusdges and the Police Academy: the National School of Judges was created by an Act in 2007 and was not functional when the earthquake took place. Making this operational, along with the construction of the Police Academy are actions that need to be completed
4) Reconstruct or develop correctional facilities of Port-au-Prince, Jacmel by 2015 in order to reduce the density of population serving their sentences and allowing separate detention of men and women, adults and juveniles, accused and convicted. A program of social integration of the convicted will be associated to these by organising workshops and professional trainings.
The total estimated budget for the overhaul of justice of public security machinery for the next 12 months is USD140,000,000
RELAUNCHING OF ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CHANNELS
The proper functioning of the economic and financial channels is crucial for the financing of reconstruction and restarting the growth process – furthermore it is the only guarantee for long term employment. The system that was in place before the earthquake has been greatly affected. Its capacities, even after restoration, will not be sufficient to cater for the need to manage risky capital credit and for rebuilding the nation and functioning of micro finance. The necessary increase in foreign direct investments will also need a financial system that can cater to the needs of investors and ensure flow of funds and banking services and relevant insurances.
According to a joint document of the Ministry of the Economy and Finances and the Bank of the Republic of Haiti, one of the consequences of the earthquake of January 12 is “the brutal stock dilution of the consumer borrowers of Port-au-Prince and other devastated cities.” That should therefore increase the demand for credit from existing borrowers to recapitalize themselves. We must also take into account the needs of the small, average and bigger businesses that will get the contracts for public and private works. To cater to these needs and thus ensure an execution capacity that corresponds to the needs, it is necessary that the financial intermediation works in the best possible manner.
According to the document quoted above, the liquidity reserves of the banks are sufficient since they practice a loans/deposits ratio of 36% against an average of 56% in the region. The explanation of such a weak recycling of the savings in credit is because of the absence of solvable demand for and because of the weak availability of venture capital. To improve this performance while ensuring the stability of bank system, the creation of guarantee funds will be necessary. It is nevertheless important to ensure that these guarantees will be offered for productive investments and not to guarantee or write off doubtful credits due to the earthquake or other hazards of the economy.
Credit for reconstruction
The reconstruction of private houses will also trigger of the need for credit facilities at acceptable and affordable rates by those who would want to reconstruct their houses. Such facilities are at a nascent stage right now but once the middle class (that lost a large amount of capital) starts to look for property there is going to be dramatic increase in demand of such credit.
It is possible that the onus of supplying a large part of necessary credit facilities will come back to banking system. Therefore, taking into account the level of risk and rates, an intervention by the State and lenders / financial backers will be necessary in the form of guarantee funds and others for catering to the demand.
The methods are yet to be defined between national and international parties, but solutions will have to be found and implemented at the earliest so as to limit the harmful effects of a major crisis of habitat in the devastated zones and rest of the country given the move towards decentralization of the population. Several solutions can be envisioned according to the status of the owner of lands and constructions. Among such solutions is the creation of loans at zero interest rate guaranteed by the State – this could be achieved through the Haitian bank system that could be in turn paid a rate negotiated between the State and the banks. It would be a matter of an open system for any bank registered in Haiti and any borrower could approach the bank of their choice.
The granting of these loans would be subject to the application of the minimal norms of reconstruction and their amount will be calculated according to the income of the borrowers. This mechanism would necessitate some finances for covering the bonus of interest rates and the constitution of guarantee funds. This suggestion would consolidate the proposed reconstruction besides a mechanism of identification of the landed property (cadastre and land register). In time it would allow creation of demand for businesses and craftsmen engaged in building/construction industry with a strong impact in terms of job creation.
The institutions extending microfinance (IMF) were greatly affected by the earthquake of Jan. 12. Their capacity to cater to the needs of 200 000 families and micro-entrepreneurs who depend on them for their finance needs has been seriously impacted. Creating and maintaining employment for a large part of the population depends on the dynamism of these institutions. The MEF-BRH documents propose the following solutions to the challenge: The following measures must be considered separately for this sector:
1. Granting of humanitarian contribution to the micro entrepreneurs that is traceable, with the objective of allowing them to: (I) face their needs for immediate consumption; and (ii) rebuild their fixed and liquid assets, along with the micro-credits that they should receive from the IMFs. The distribution of such grants is dependent on the IMFs themselves in order to leverage their knowledge of beneficiaries and their ability to reach them through their network
2. Establishment of partial guarantee funds meant for restarting microcredit to customers in affected zones by the earthquake and catering to specificities of microfinance, these funds catering nevertheless to the same logic that one uses for the funds to be developed for the banking system. These guarantee funds would target future credits and refinancing of credits existing before the earthquake on an equal footing.
3. Establishment of recapitalization mechanisms of the IMFs, foreseeing the buyback of non performing credit portfolios by a fund or a financial entity dedicated to this end. For Haiti, it would nevertheless be indicated that envisaging the recovery of the repurchased credits of the IMFs be given to these same entities on the basis of commissions linked to the sums that are finally recovered, so as to profit in the best possible way from their experience in the domain.
4. Establishment of guarantee funds or other forms of insurance covering the future risks linked to the advent of natural or other catastrophes external shocks to the activity of the IMFs.
PRIVATE INVESTMENT ET PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERS
The national and foreigner direct investments will be determining for ensuring that Haitian economy recovers. The state is involved in favouring these investments by revision of legal and financial framework governing the investments in production, transformation, distribution and services sectors. An adequate encouragement policy will also be made to favour the establishment of manufacturing industries, free zones, industrial parks and zones of tourist development.
A host of encouraging measures will be put in place for the diligent study of files and facilitation of investments. The Ministry of the Commerce and Industry and the Center of Facilitation of the Investments are working on it to expedite the matters in these domains. The post earthquake action plan for the rebuilding and development of Haiti recommends the development of regional centers and the setting up of transportation, energy and industrial infrastructures and of goods services. For setting up of such equipments and infrastructures (harbours; airports; power stations; industrial parks; potable water supply systems; etc.), the national strategy will consist of calling upon the national and foreign private investments (when required) to set up public private partnership (PPP) following the BOT approach (Built, Operate and Transfer). In such a case, the goal will be to mobilize as quickly as possible the sources of investments for “turnkey” realization delivery.
The public private partnership models (PPP) differ as per their objectives: big productive infrastructures; big corporate equipments; projects of economic developments; etc. Within these big objects, principles/objectives structuring must be followed in order to ensure convergence and coherence of action. For productive infrastructures, the national strategy will focus on the following principles/objectives:
1) The PPP will have to profitable for the State and for the private partner.
2) The PPP will have to give away dividend to a public service and/or increased tax revenues to the State.
3) The PPP should not aggravate national debt.
4) The PPP should augur economic growth and creation of jobs, thus contributing to increase the purchasing power of the population and thereby reducing poverty.
5) The PPP should allow spreading the cover of a service within the rules established by the State, preferably at the least possible cost for the user.
6) The PPP should to foresee that the equipments, infrastructures and services set up by virtue of the PPP are a temporary concession to the private partner and to therefore foresee methods to return these equipments, infrastructures and services to government authorities.
7) The PPP should foresee a possible buyback of equipments, infrastructures and services set up by the State at any time.
8) The PPP will register itself inside a chain of services of the State. If required, the services offered by the PPP will have to allow the participation of the State services or to work with them.
9) The PPP will have to include infrastructures and equipments in place from the State, for sale, for long term rent or for local matching of the external financing.
10) The PPP will have to guarantee the right of management of the private partner.
The models of PPP for the big corporate equipments and for the basic services like potable water supply systems and garbage collection will have to vary according to the context and according to the users’ capacity to pay (for them). For many of them, it will be necessary to foresee the basic role of the local governments and civil society that is already very active in the field. Certain practices that are promising are already implemented in certain sectors.
CREATION OF EMPLOYMENT WHICH IS HIGHLY LABOR INTENSIVE
In order to lessen the negative impact of the catastrophe on the peoples’ standard of living, it is necessary to initiate at the earliest the large scale job creation programs. These programs must target not only the disaster affected zones but also the regions which are receiving the displaced persons and on the whole throughout the country, not only to create equality but also to avoid further migration of people.
Apart from its economic effects, this job creation fulfils the desire for human dignity: any Haitian would like to satisfy his needs by the fruits of his labor. The present situation offers numerous opportunities for works which would involve large number of workers. This involves the rural activities through restoration of production infrastructure (irrigation systems, agricultural tracks) and the development of catchment areas (reforestation, setting up forage patches, works to correct gully erosion in the peri-urban zones, fruit arboriculture. The roadways maintenance programs also fulfill this objective, as per the methodology that we have deployed over a number of years through the road maintenance fund and as per a schedule which has to be speeded up. The small community infrastructure (roads, tracks, plots, shops and community centers, small water reservoirs and conduit pipes,…) and urban (street paving, sample plots, cleaning of sanitation network, …) are equally part of this logic as also the projects pertaining to the cleaning and recycling of material generated by the collapse of buildings in the areas most affected by the earthquake.
The potential for job creation is considerable. Thus MARNDR’s program alone has a potential to generate jobs for about 40 million men/day. The job creation must be done while adhering to a certain number of principles: (i) apart from direct employment, the choice of investments must take into account their economic and social benefits as well as their viability, (ii) special attention must be given to the support and accountability of the local structures in their capacity as business managers, (iii) the public works must be well organized and supervised by professionals, so that the workers and the population in general do not get the negative impression that on can earn money by engaging in an activity which has no utility or is badly managed, (iv) the salary paid must be decent at the same time should avoid any competition with the salaries paid in the regular market so that there is no migration of work force beyond the current activities, (v) it is essential that the Haitian children are protected from child labor, mainly from the most harmful form of work (respecting the fundamental rights and the international work standards) during the first stages of the reconstruction taking into account the temptations which can crop up when the residents are trying to rebuild their lives, (vi) the families who are helping the physically challenged persons, must be given priority in order to help them take up their responsibilities.
The creation of jobs does not pertain to public works only. It can involve projects such as the setting up of the civil-status record, setting up a cadastre, surveys to be carried out by the National Observatory for Poverty and Social Exclusion (ONPES) and other structures, which are highly labor intensive and are equally distributed over the country. The execution of this type of project must receive the highest priority.
The central theme for defining and organizing the government action, the governance was addressed under many aspects in the working group devoted to the restart of the public administration. Other dimensions must be taken into account in this vast enterprise of rebuilding of Haiti.
Before the earthquake struck, the revision of the Constitution was put on the legislative agenda due to the inherent difficulties of the application of its various provisions. This revision must be maintained on the agenda so that Haiti becomes more operational and moves towards striking a better balance between the institutions, between a National Assembly which is better oriented towards establishing the legislative standards, and an Executive which is more efficient in the discharge of its responsibilities. Citizenship must be accessible to all. All the Haitians must be integrated in the development of the country.
The renovation of the legal framework of the central administration, the de-concentration and the de-centralization must allow to specify the roles of the different actors in the politico-administrative system at all levels. The legal framework of the business must be liberalized in order to stimulate internal investment, mainly as regards trade and services and to make the country more attractive for direct foreign investment. The reform of the banking system and other savings and credit institutions also appears to be incontrovertible to stimulate private investment.
At the same time, reforms in the public domain will lay emphasis on the recruitment and training of the personnel, mainly in order to reinforce the de-centralized services in the counties and the districts, and to equip the regional authorities with the personnel necessary to exercise their authority. The existing project for setting up the National School of Public Administration and Public policies will be implemented in order to train the first generation of executives and to absorb them in the work force before 2015. Their number will depend on the policy of the projected management of the jobs and the qualifications which must accompany the reform of the administrative structures of the State and the development of the authority of the local bodies. In the extension of the technical assistance programs already undertaken, the radical reform of the public finances will be implemented:
1) Special emphasis will be laid on the optimization of the fiscal resources and the improvement in the rate of tax collections, in order to reduce the need for budgetary assistance and the dependence of the Haitian State on international aid. Moreover, the fiscal reform is indissolubly linked to the decentralization reform.
2) The modernization of the budgetary provisions will be pursued in order to adopt a result oriented budget of programs going hand in hand with the legislative and regulatory provisions for speeding up the procedures for withdrawal of credit.
3) The government will propose an improvement in the legislation regarding the public markets allowing to speed up the procedures of public expenditure and at the same time ensuring that the principles of transparency, competition, efficiency and accountability is adhered to.
Deliberations on regional governance, and in particular on regional development, ensuring that the principles of transparency, competition, efficiency and accountability, local development, environment, urban planning, and public works have been launched since long. However, a major reason for the repercussions of the earthquake can be attributed to the inaction of the public authorities in these matters. Also, the revision of the legal framework, pertaining to the regional and local development is a priority. It must be carried out with the perspective of regionalization, de-concentration and de-centralization. Mainly the politico-administrative limits of the territory must be brought closer to that of the boundaries of the catchment areas so as to adapt them to the development needs and its management and the protection of the environment.
However, the repercussions of the earthquake can be largely attributed to the non-application of the rules of urban development and construction. The drafting of the National Buildings Law has already been initiated and the drafting of the zoning, housing estate and urban planning laws, will be implemented in order to guide the concerned parties. These laws must be circulated widely and applied, and for this they must be drafted in a simple and clear manner.
The management of the land and the construction is likely to necessitate the setting up of authorities with fixed objectives. This is mainly the case for the purchase and sale of land in the target zones or for executing real estate operations. The setting up of agencies for these purposes which are yet to be determined have to be considered.
First of all, instruments for the identification of people and property have to be reestablished: civil-status, cadastre, right to the name, land registry, are the foundation for exercising the rights of a citizen, to vote, guarantee rights, pay taxes, secure business transactions and passing down inheritance etc. Moreover the reconstruction of the devastated urban zones offers the opportunity to go ahead with the balancing of the rights over the urban territory, which otherwise risk becoming a constant source of civil and commercial litigations. Here it is a precondition for the re-starting of investment in Haiti.
Moreover, the experience of recent catastrophic events (hurricane in 2008 and earthquake in 2010) calls for the implementation of rigorous crisis management mechanisms. The risk management must be examined as per the following principle axes:
1) From the operational point of view, the local means for civil protection will be reinforced with the continuation of the actions already in place: training, staff recruitment, equipping the community and county personnel, recruitment of a civil safety manager for each commune, recruitment of a coordinator for each county to function under the county delegates. For events that require a national level response the role of the home minister will be confirmed as the sole person in charge of the crisis operational management.
2) From the point of view of the crisis management the public authority will be in a state of preparation for any crisis which threatens the country, whatever may be its origin: natural, industrial or technological disaster, major accidents, health crisis, environmental degradation etc. For this purpose a National Council for civil protection comprising of ministers who are directly involved in the crisis management will be set up and will be responsible for defining the strategy for reducing the vulnerability and the response to major crises. This will be the political structure for management of major crises and their follow-up till the situation returns to normal. A permanent general secretariat functioning under the prime minister will ensure the preparation of the decisions of the council and their implementation; for this it will have at its disposal a Commanding Centre (COU) armed and managed by the DPC.
3) The risk prevention policies will be followed and matched with the staff measures: delimitation of zones at risk, regulation of urban planning, prescription for construction, mainly quake resistant, standardization of construction procedures and material, pollution prevention rules etc..The ministry for public works transport and communication, agriculture and natural resources ministry, environment ministry must have at their disposal control structure comprising of, before 2020, a supervisor for each county, and before 2015, start equipping the counties which face maximum threat from floods
4) The law governing the state of emergency will be revised in order to allow the government to respond better to exceptional situations like that of 12 January 2010.
Finally, as regards the coordination of external aid there was a need, prior to the occurrence of the earthquake, amongst the donors, who met regularly in the coordination group. The situation created by the earthquake reinforced this need that the government must hence onwards must direct independently of the mechanism in place for the reconstruction (MDTF, agency for reconstruction). Particularly in the field of technical assistance, there must be better coordination between the Haitian authorities and the donors, in order to better asses the needs, select the people, follow their activities, and assess the impact of this assistance on the public institutions.
THE MACROECOMONIC FRAMEWORK
Text to be received.
THE FINANCING MECHANISMS
The mechanisms of financing must allow access to sufficient funds to achieve the ambitious objectives of the post earthquake Action Plan, which implies that the different mechanisms have at their disposal the necessary funds by adhering to the commitments undertaken and that adequate procedures ensure the withdrawal liquidity. There are obligations to produce results. The experience of the last six years shows that this was not the case. One has to proceed differently and innovate, mainly as regards the conditions. The management framework of the different mechanisms must comprise of all the guaranties necessary for the proper and transparent management of the funds involved. These guaranties must be limited to the effective monitoring of the funds and not include the “extra-management” conditions pertaining to the actions to be laid down with no relation with the approval and follow up of the execution of the programs and projects.
Financing of the plan of action, post earthquake comprises of multiple components. Consequently, the public expenditure is only a part of the effort to consent. The investment expenditure for the reconstruction of the residences of commercial places and factories will be mainly provided by the private sector. It must be ensured that the credit mechanism can match up to the requirements and steps will be taken in this direction.
The commitments made at the New York Conference mainly concern the resources related to public support for the development. The mechanism discussed in this chapter deals mainly with this aspect of the post earthquake Plan of Action for the re-building of Haiti but also deals with the initiatives to be taken to integrate the contributions of one and all in a collective and united effort to, not only recover from the disaster of 12th January but also to actually re-launch the country on the path of development in accordance with the vision expressed.
The fiscal and budgetary situation of the government of Haiti has seriously deteriorated following the earthquake of 12th January. Consequently, according to an estimation of the IMF about 85% of the state’s revenues come from Port-au-Prince and its immediate surroundings which were the epicenter of the earthquake. The buildings which were the centers for collection of taxes and custom duties were practically destroyed. Worse, the commercial and financial infrastructure were also affected by the earthquake which itself reduced the fiscal receipts of the State for a very long period.
Moreover, the State must fulfil the large scale needs of the population directly affected by the earthquake such as setting up temporary shelters, creation of jobs to allow the victims to survive and to create a solvable demand for the goods and services produced locally. It must also take the necessary initiatives for the re-location of the population, support to other region of the country in order to enable them to receive the flow of population and to set up medical and educational facilities close by. It must also temporarily re-house the activities of the different ministries and organizations, whose buildings were destroyed, replace the equipment and re-constitute the archives.
In short it must create hope and affirm its legitimacy as leader of the process of re-building of the country. The response must be massive and immediate, even before the Conference held at end March at New York. The only mechanism capable of fulfilling these requirements is the recourse to the State budget which depends, in the present context, on the budgetary aid in order to bail itself out.
In the short term, say five years, the State must be able to depend on its own capability to intervene so as to regain the place that belongs to it and exercise the desired leadership. It must avail of substantial, reliable and foreseeable means of which a major part will come from budgetary aid and from the balance of payments. This mechanism of financing must have an autonomous mode of supply and management beyond multi-donor trust funds.
A significant progress had been made during the course of last few years, mainly by the creation of a Framework of Partnership for the Budgetary Aid. The government and the technical and financial partners engaged in this form of aid have adopted a common matrix of conditions and reinforced their collaboration for a greater ability to predict budgetary support and a schedule for withdrawal.
More needs to be done. The other partners must pledge a major part of their aid in the form of donation to the national budgetary aid. Reciprocal confidence is the only path which can be practiced in this field. The mechanism for monitoring as regards the adherence to the commitment as well as the proper use of funds must be put in place or reinforced with the perspective of ensuring the liquidity of funds.
MULTI-DONOR TRUST FUND
The Multi-donor Trust Fund (FFMD) is an instrument which must facilitate synchronization between the programs and projects requiring finance and the funds available. It’s an instrument which allows the grouping of contributions for programs whose scope exceeds the capability of a single financial backer. Finally it is a mechanism which must in principle facilitate the coordination of the external aid and ensure the proper management of funds put at its disposal for rebuilding of Haiti. Haiti accepts the creation of such a fund in order to achieve the objectives mentioned in the previous paragraph, but there must be a responsibility to show results, i.e.:
1) Mobilize more funds and make them available faster.
2) Increase the liquidity of the financial flows.
3) Facilitate coordination with the external aid.
4) Accelerate the procedures for supply and mobilization of the operators for the program execution.
5) Provide to the contributing partners the guarantee of probity and diligence in the use of the financial resources.
6) Reduce the cost of aid transaction.
The organization which will be responsible for the management of the FFMD is answerable for achieving these results, as much the Haitian part as well as the contributors. There must also be a rationalization of the recourse to this mechanism of financing. Trust funds already exist and others are being set up. The management of these sources of finance must be coordinated in order to avoid duplication and related expenses. The management costs of such funds are relatively high and must be justified by an enhanced performance. This aspect must exhibit the same transparency as all the others.
It is difficult to imagine that all the funds available, including those passing through multilateral agencies and the NGOs will be actually managed via this fund. It is thus imperative to specify the real scope of the competence of this fund and its modalities of supply and withdrawal.
FINANCING FROM BILATERAL DONORS
External cooperation, which Haiti has enjoyed for decades, is largely based on bilateral accords between Haiti, the donor countries and the international organizations. The projects in progress or those which will materialize must be followed or reframed and this such that they are in accord with the post quake plan of action for rebuilding of Haiti. It is likely that a major part of the future funds will pass by the FFMD but for pragmatic reasons the bilateral funds will continue. Adequate mechanisms to coordinate these funds need to be put in place.
In the short term and for more efficiency, the bilateral agreement can allow the execution of ready to implement programs and projects. This approach will no doubt be necessary during the breaking-in period of the FFMD as immediate measures have to be taken and programs have to be launched now. The bilateral agreement must prove to be complementary to the initiative and activities financed by the budgetary support and consequently, via the national budget.
FUNDS MANAGED BY OR TROUGH THE NGOS
The NGOs are the main operators for implementing the post-quake plan of action. The solidarity expressed by the people of the countries friendly to Haiti manifested in the form of substantial contribution to help the Haitian people. These means must materialize in the form of coordinated interventions in the sectoral plans for intervention and in direct collaboration with the structures coordinating the entire effort at the humanitarian level.
The time has come to better coordinate the interventions of the national institutions and those of the NGOs in order to ensure the delivery of basic services over the entire national territory. The modalities have yet to be discussed but the objective to achieve must be understood by all: the activities of the NGOs must be in tune with the national programs.
MANAGING THE RECONSTRUCTION
The scale of damages and losses caused by the earthquake of 12th January calls for a mobilization of funds and resources which largely exceed the normal flow of aid to the country. It will be pertinent under these circumstances to equip oneself with adequate means for the management of the reconstruction.
Haiti has analyzed the models used under similar circumstances elsewhere in the world during the course of last few years and proposes a two pronged response: intermediary structure capable of dealing with the imperatives of the immediate response (18 months) and a medium term structure for the development of the country (48 months). These structures are distinct from the multi donor trust fund which will also be put in place as explained earlier. The Head of the State will introduce a draft law during the extra-ordinary session of the Parliament in order to get the approval for the creation of the Intermediary Commission for the reconstruction of Haiti (CIRH) and for the Authority for the development of Haiti (ADH)
THE INTERMEDIARY COMMISSION FOR THE RECONSTRUCTION OF HAITI (CIRH)
The Intermediary Commission for the Reconstruction of Haiti has the mandate to take charge of, during the Phase I (18 months) the coordination and implementation of the Government of Haiti’s Master Plan. This Master Plan consists of the programs and projects which will be submitted to the Commission with at it’s head the Haitian decision making body, along with the financial donors, the NGOs the IFI, the sectors of the civil society of the country.
The Commission submits its recommendations to the President of the Republic who approves the programs and projects or can exercise his veto as he deems fit. The flow chart presented below describes the functioning of the Commission. This falls under the authority of the Council co-presided by a representative of the government of Haiti (probably the Prime Minister) and a representative of the international community.
There are 17 voting members, i.e. the members voting:
For the Haitian Party:
• Three representatives of the government nominated by the Executive, the Judiciary and the local authorities.
• A representative nominated by the President of the Senate.
• A representative nominated by the President of the Chamber of Deputies of Haiti.
• A representative of the Haitian trade unions
• A representative of the Haitian business community.
As regards the international part:
• A representative of each of the main financial donors (Brazil, Canada, France, United States, Inter-American bank for Development, World Bank, united Nations, European Union)
• A representative of the CARICOM
• A representative of the other financial donors
The Council also comprises of three non voting members representing the Organization of the American States, a representative of the community of NGOs and a representative of the Haitian Diaspora. The Council does not comprise of representations. This Council is supported by a Secretariat headed by the Executive Director picked directly from the co-Presidents and equipped with sectoral Councillors, an office for project management. Additional structures will be determined depending on the requirements. The structure is completed by an independent audit authority which gives an account of the functioning of the CIRH to the President of the Republic, the Government, the Parliament, the International community and the general public.
THE AUTHORITY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF HAÏTI (ADH)
The Authority for the Development of Haïti is a basically Haitian structure presided over by a representative of the Government of Haïti and comprising of a Council consisting of:
• Three representatives of the Government nominated by the Executive, the Judiciary, and the local authorities.
• A representative nominated by the President of the Senate.
• A representative nominated by the President of the Chamber of Deputies of Haïti.
• A representative of the Trade Unions of Haitians.
• A representative of business community of Haiti
The Council is supported by a Consultative Committee mainly with the same composition as the earlier Council of the CIRH. The independent audit authority fulfills the same functions as that for the interim structure. Its mandate is to implement the Development Plan of the Government.
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